President Biden has declared that the United States needs resilient, diverse, and secure supply chains to ensure our economic prosperity and national security, and he has made the security of these supply chains a priority. In the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic and other biological threats, cyber-attacks, extreme weather events, terrorist attacks, geopolitical and economic competition, and other conditions, the viability of the critical manufacturing capacity of the United States and the availability and integrity of critical goods, products, and services has been put at risk. Citing the pressure of these events, President Biden signed a comprehensive EO that directs the heads of federal departments and agencies to identify ways to secure and protect U.S. supply chains from various risks and maintain the nation’s competitive edge in the global economy while improving its national security posture. The ultimate objective of the reviews ordered by the EO is to generate well-informed recommendations that will create more resilient supply chains that are secure, utilize domestic production as much as possible, enable adequate stockpiles, and maintain close cooperation on strong supply chains with allies.
100-day review details
The 100-day review will focus on the following supply chains: API supply chains, as the administration cites, in recent decades more than 70 percent of API production has moved offshore; critical minerals supply chains,4 such as rare earths for electric motors, carbon fiber for manufacturing, and other commodities that are vital for the defense, technology, and manufacturing sectors; semiconductors and advanced packaging supply chains; and large capacity batteries supply chains, such as those used in electric vehicles.
The target of the 100-day review is to identify the steps that the administration can quickly take, including in conjunction with Congress, to protect U.S. supply chains. This review will be coordinated by the assistant to the president for national security affairs (APNSA) and the assistant to the president for economic policy (APEP), who will coordinate with the following specified heads of departments, who will work in consultation with the heads of appropriate agencies,5 to create recommendations to fulfill the goal of the EO: the secretary of commerce (Commerce); the secretary of energy (Energy); the secretary of defense, as the national defense stockpile manager (Defense); and the secretary of health and human services (HHS).