Global Arbitration Review (GAR)

Global Arbitration Review (GAR) Know-how provides detailed information about individual jurisdictions in an easy-to-use-on-the-go, Q&A form.

Kohe Hasan, Michael Chee and Gautam Lamba recently co-authored a section for GAR’s Know-how outlining the features of challenging and enforcing arbitration awards in Singapore.

Applicable requirements as to the form of arbitral awards

  1. Must an award take any particular form?

Under the Arbitration Act (Cap. 10) (AA), section 38(1), or the UNCITRAL Model Law on InternationalCommercial Arbitration 1985 (the Model Law), article 31(1), which is given the force of law in Singapore under the International Arbitration Act (Cap. 143A) (IAA) Section 3(1), an arbitration award must be made in writing and be signed by the arbitrator in person (in the case of a sole arbitrator) or at least the majority of the arbitrators (in the case of two or more arbitrators), provided that the reasons for any omitted signatures is stated.

The award must state the reasons on which it is based (AA, section 38(2); Model Law, article 31(2)). The award must also state the date of the award and place of arbitration (AA, section 38(3); Model Law, article 31(3)). After the award is made, a copy of the signed award must be delivered to each party (AA, section 38(5); Model Law, article 31(4)). The award is deemed to have been made at the place of arbitration (AA, section 38(4)).

An extract from GAR’s Challenging and Enforcing Arbitration Awards Know-how. The whole publication is available at